For this study investigators identified two groups of prepubertal girls. Based on quintiles, one group included those who excreted the highest amounts of genistein and the lowest amounts of bisphenol A (BPA) and the other excreted the highest amounts of BPA and the lowest amounts of genistein. BPA is generally classified as an endocrine disrupter. The results showed that in the blood of girls with high urinary genistein concentrations, two proteins with cancer associations were down regulated: endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE-1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit J (EIF-3). ECE-1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a range of disease states including breast, gynecological and urological cancers, cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease. EIF-3 has been found elevated in human breast, cervical, esophageal, and lung cancers, suggesting a potential role in malignant transformation and cell growth control. On the other hand, nucleolar 7 and PR domain zinc finger 5 (PRDM5) are proteins that are up regulated in high-genistein girls. Nucleolar 7 and PRDM5 have been reported to regulate the cell cycle. The nucleolar 7 gene is reported to be a candidate tumor suppressor gene in cervical cancer that modulates the angiogenic phenotype. PRDM5 has growth suppressive activities and is silenced in breast, ovarian, liver, lung, colon, and other cancers. In contrast to the results in the high-genistein girls, protein changes in the high-BPA group were reflective of an increased cancer risk.
Wang J, Betancourt A, Jenkins S. et al. Altered Blood Proteome in Girls with High Urine Concentrations of Bisphenol A, Genistein, Mono-Ethyl Hexylphthalate and Mono-Benzyl Phthalate. MOJ Proteomics & Bioinformatics 2, 2015